GLASS

Glass is an inorganic substance, produced by melting a mixture of silicates (such as sand) and a flux (such as lime and soda) it is hard, brittle and transparent or translucent. Molten glass may be blown, cast, drawn, rolled, or pressed.
Below is a list of some glass types and their uses:-
 
SODA-LIME GLASS
 
Also known as soda-lime-silica glass, this is the most common glass type as used in window panes, bottles and jars. The raw materials for this glass are soda, lime, silica and alumina with the addition of sodium sulphate, and sodium chloride as fining agents. To cut the cost in manufacturing common glass pure chemicals are no longer used but less expensive materials such as trona, sand and feldspar are substituted.
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BOROSILICATE GLASS

This glass is made from silica and boron oxide. Its property, resistance to thermal shock, makes it ideal for producing glassware for specialist applications such as beakers and test tubes for laboratory use.

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GLASS WOOL
 
Similar it texture to steel wool and consists of thin strands of glass woven into matting. This is used for its insulation properties as in loft insulation, protective clothing, ovens, stud wall insulation and satellite insulation. Image courtesy of:- http://www.made-in-china.com/showroom/lvlin318/offer-detailQMCmlikHJupD/Sell-Glass-Wool-Felt-1.html
 
 
 
OPTICAL GLASS
 
This is also known as flint glass and has a relatively high refractive index which makes it ideal for producing lenses. To produce optical glass, lead was used as an additive but in order to cut pollution it is has been replaced with titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide.
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FUSED SILICA
 
Also known as fused quartz, fused silica is a type of glass that contains silica as its primary ingredient. It has superior optical and thermal properties to other glasses due to its lack of impurities and is used for semiconductor manufacture and laboratory equipment. It is also used to make lenses and precision mirrors.
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COLOURED GLASS
 
The colour tints in glass can be produced by adding certain impurities. Soda-lime glass is clear when it is thin but when it is produced thicker the iron oxide impurities within the glass causes a green tint. Iron oxide plus chromium oxide produces the green used in making green bottles. Sulphur, carbon and iron salts produce amber glass and, depending on the impurity proportions, can range from yellow to almost black. Manganese dioxide added in small quantities can remove the green tint that is produced by the use of iron oxide. This is used when re-cycling green bottles, to produce clear glass.
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